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Archive for: gennaio 2014

Nea-Science – Special Issue Vol.3

Nea-Science – Special Issue Vol.3

Technology to enhance Hands-on Psycho-pedagogical Practices

 

Download Special Issue: http://issuu.com/neascience/docs/issue_nov_13

 

Since their birth and maybe even before, children start learning about the world around them. Day by day they can count on wider sensory-motor functions that open to their cognitive development new ways. In the period of their life that goes from few months to 3-4 years hands are fundamental in conveying knowledge. A child points something, he/she handles, touches, tastes and manipulates while understanding an object features and functions. This every day observations reflect in eminent psychologists perspectives, consider for example Piaget (1926; 1936), Papert (1993), Bruner (1990) who recognize a fundamental role to manipulative activities for psychological development and cognitive representations birth. Also Vygotsky, the other giant father of cognitive development theory, believed that interaction with environment was an important way a child may learn, not the only one indeed. In his opinion, cognitive development relies on input from other people as well, thus underlying the importance of historical and cultural context children live in. Of course, adult humans do not learn only by pointing, reaching, touching and manipulating. During the cognitive development and learning processes, the “concrete” manipulative acts are gradually embedded and represented in our neurocognitive structures where they are performed as “simulated” actions (symbolic acts) in a virtual (mind) space (see Newcombe abd Shipley, in press). But the use of hands (or more in general, the body) coupled with a cognitive representation of the physical space are the latent and essential psychological biases of our learning/developmental processes. They strongly emerge when the environmental conditions invite us to use them. These biases are, probably, the main reasons why we think about Internet as a geometrical (virtual) space or why the (computer) “mouses” and the “touch screens” are immediately intuitive. In fact, the mouse extends our “pointing” and “reaching” actions in a computer screen graphic space and the current “touch screen” technology allows us to manipulate digital virtual objects. Recently, new technologies are candidates to enhance our attitude to know by manipulating. Basically, they are composed by common objects equipped with sensors and connected in wireless mode with a remote computer. Users enter in this sort of Internet of Things and interact with the smart objects through new interfaces (glasses, gloves, visors, etc.) or by traditional manipulation interpreted by (sophisticated) computer programs (see for example handwriting recognition systems).  We think that the new chances offered by the Smart Objects technology could produce innovative learning/teaching environments to enhance neuro-cognitive development especially in training context. Moreover, with these tools we could recover traditional and well known psycho-pedagogical practices that are not widely and massively applied because of their expensiveness. For example, it is the case of educational materials like Logic Blocks or Teaching Tiles. These are manipulative learning environments designed to teach a wide range of subjects (mathematics, geometry, languages, geography, etc.) and abilities (or soft skills) (problem solving, creative thinking, cooperative behaviour, etc.) for children aged from 3 and 10. Unfortunately, this type of material can be used individually or in small groups of students (3-4 children maximum) and requires a constant supervision by an adult (teachers, parents, educators, etc.). This is a strong constrain for their massive utilization. As said above, we think that the emerging field of smart technologies (software and hardware) could be addressed to overcome this constrain and exploit the huge potential lying in these materials/practice. This book aims to introduce the general theme of developing and using innovative teaching/learning environments based on the harmonic integration of (a) Referring to a well-known cognitive theoretical perspective;  (b) recovering traditional psycho-pedagogical practices, etc. (i.e. logical blocks, teaching tiles, handwriting); (c) applying Smart Technologies to enhance the psycho-pedagogical practices (i.e. hardware side: RFID/NFC sensors, augmented reality systems, intelligent interfaces, etc.; software side: artificial intelligence systems to enhance the learning-teaching experiences). The book is divided-up in two parts. The first part delineates the state the art of the overall field (theoretical perspectives, hand-on educational practices, smart technologies applied to education), the second part will  describe the Block-Magic  methodology-technology as a concrete and recent case of study. More in detail the first part reports the state of the art about theoretical perspective on learning and cognitive development that inspire hands-on educational practices. Moreover we will describe some relevant examples of hands-on educational practices, underlying their specific features, strengths and drawbacks and how they are related with the theories and methods describes in the first section. Finally, we will go a step further introducing tangible devices and smart technologies that allow people to interact with digital information through the physical environment (i.e. tangible user interface). Also in this case attention will be devoted to analyse these examples according to the proposed theoretical framework. The part II will widely describe a case study, the Block-Magic methodology . What is Block Magic? Why is it different from others platforms? What does it allow to do in training /educational context? Why is it effective? These questions will receive a reply through the description of concrete examples and applications by the Block- Magic Consortium, in the framework of EU funded research project. Many book authors are members of the Block-Magic consortium (www.block-magic.eu) that has developed learning/teaching materials and activities according to the above guidelines.

Nea-Science – Special Issue Vol.3

Nea-Science – Special Issue Vol.3

Technology to enhance Hands-on Psycho-pedagogical Practices

 

Download Special Issue: http://issuu.com/neascience/docs/issue_nov_13

 

Since their birth and maybe even before, children start learning about the world around them. Day by day they can count on wider sensory-motor functions that open to their cognitive development new ways. In the period of their life that goes from few months to 3-4 years hands are fundamental in conveying knowledge. A child points something, he/she handles, touches, tastes and manipulates while understanding an object features and functions. This every day observations reflect in eminent psychologists perspectives, consider for example Piaget (1926; 1936), Papert (1993), Bruner (1990) who recognize a fundamental role to manipulative activities for psychological development and cognitive representations birth. Also Vygotsky, the other giant father of cognitive development theory, believed that interaction with environment was an important way a child may learn, not the only one indeed. In his opinion, cognitive development relies on input from other people as well, thus underlying the importance of historical and cultural context children live in. Of course, adult humans do not learn only by pointing, reaching, touching and manipulating. During the cognitive development and learning processes, the “concrete” manipulative acts are gradually embedded and represented in our neurocognitive structures where they are performed as “simulated” actions (symbolic acts) in a virtual (mind) space (see Newcombe abd Shipley, in press). But the use of hands (or more in general, the body) coupled with a cognitive representation of the physical space are the latent and essential psychological biases of our learning/developmental processes. They strongly emerge when the environmental conditions invite us to use them. These biases are, probably, the main reasons why we think about Internet as a geometrical (virtual) space or why the (computer) “mouses” and the “touch screens” are immediately intuitive. In fact, the mouse extends our “pointing” and “reaching” actions in a computer screen graphic space and the current “touch screen” technology allows us to manipulate digital virtual objects. Recently, new technologies are candidates to enhance our attitude to know by manipulating. Basically, they are composed by common objects equipped with sensors and connected in wireless mode with a remote computer. Users enter in this sort of Internet of Things and interact with the smart objects through new interfaces (glasses, gloves, visors, etc.) or by traditional manipulation interpreted by (sophisticated) computer programs (see for example handwriting recognition systems).  We think that the new chances offered by the Smart Objects technology could produce innovative learning/teaching environments to enhance neuro-cognitive development especially in training context. Moreover, with these tools we could recover traditional and well known psycho-pedagogical practices that are not widely and massively applied because of their expensiveness. For example, it is the case of educational materials like Logic Blocks or Teaching Tiles. These are manipulative learning environments designed to teach a wide range of subjects (mathematics, geometry, languages, geography, etc.) and abilities (or soft skills) (problem solving, creative thinking, cooperative behaviour, etc.) for children aged from 3 and 10. Unfortunately, this type of material can be used individually or in small groups of students (3-4 children maximum) and requires a constant supervision by an adult (teachers, parents, educators, etc.). This is a strong constrain for their massive utilization. As said above, we think that the emerging field of smart technologies (software and hardware) could be addressed to overcome this constrain and exploit the huge potential lying in these materials/practice. This book aims to introduce the general theme of developing and using innovative teaching/learning environments based on the harmonic integration of (a) Referring to a well-known cognitive theoretical perspective;  (b) recovering traditional psycho-pedagogical practices, etc. (i.e. logical blocks, teaching tiles, handwriting); (c) applying Smart Technologies to enhance the psycho-pedagogical practices (i.e. hardware side: RFID/NFC sensors, augmented reality systems, intelligent interfaces, etc.; software side: artificial intelligence systems to enhance the learning-teaching experiences). The book is divided-up in two parts. The first part delineates the state the art of the overall field (theoretical perspectives, hand-on educational practices, smart technologies applied to education), the second part will  describe the Block-Magic  methodology-technology as a concrete and recent case of study. More in detail the first part reports the state of the art about theoretical perspective on learning and cognitive development that inspire hands-on educational practices. Moreover we will describe some relevant examples of hands-on educational practices, underlying their specific features, strengths and drawbacks and how they are related with the theories and methods describes in the first section. Finally, we will go a step further introducing tangible devices and smart technologies that allow people to interact with digital information through the physical environment (i.e. tangible user interface). Also in this case attention will be devoted to analyse these examples according to the proposed theoretical framework. The part II will widely describe a case study, the Block-Magic methodology . What is Block Magic? Why is it different from others platforms? What does it allow to do in training /educational context? Why is it effective? These questions will receive a reply through the description of concrete examples and applications by the Block- Magic Consortium, in the framework of EU funded research project. Many book authors are members of the Block-Magic consortium (www.block-magic.eu) that has developed learning/teaching materials and activities according to the above guidelines.

Nea-Science – Anno 1 Vol.3 Special Issue

Nea-Science – Special Issue Vol.3

Technology to enhance  Hands-on Psycho-pedagogical Practices

Download Special Issue: http://issuu.com/neascience/docs/issue_nov_13

Since their birth and maybe even before, children start learning about the world around them. Day by day they can count on wider sensory-motor functions that open to their cognitive development new ways. In the period of their life that goes from few months to 3-4 years hands are fundamental in conveying knowledge. A child points something, he/she handles, touches, tastes and manipulates while understanding an object features and functions. This every day observations reflect in eminent psychologists perspectives, consider for example Piaget (1926; 1936), Papert (1993), Bruner (1990) who recognize a fundamental role to manipulative activities for psychological development and cognitive representations birth. Also Vygotsky, the other giant father of cognitive development theory, believed that interaction with environment was an important way a child may learn, not the only one indeed. In his opinion, cognitive development relies on input from other people as well, thus underlying the importance of historical and cultural context children live in. Of course, adult humans do not learn only by pointing, reaching, touching and manipulating. During the cognitive development and learning processes, the “concrete” manipulative acts are gradually embedded and represented in our neurocognitive structures where they are performed as “simulated” actions (symbolic acts) in a virtual (mind) space (see Newcombe abd Shipley, in press). But the use of hands (or more in general, the body) coupled with a cognitive representation of the physical space are the latent and essential psychological biases of our learning/developmental processes. They strongly emerge when the environmental conditions invite us to use them. These biases are, probably, the main reasons why we think about Internet as a geometrical (virtual) space or why the (computer) “mouses” and the “touch screens” are immediately intuitive. In fact, the mouse extends our “pointing” and “reaching” actions in a computer screen graphic space and the current “touch screen” technology allows us to manipulate digital virtual objects. Recently, new technologies are candidates to enhance our attitude to know by manipulating. Basically, they are composed by common objects equipped with sensors and connected in wireless mode with a remote computer. Users enter in this sort of Internet of Things and interact with the smart objects through new interfaces (glasses, gloves, visors, etc.) or by traditional manipulation interpreted by (sophisticated) computer programs (see for example handwriting recognition systems).  We think that the new chances offered by the Smart Objects technology could produce innovative learning/teaching environments to enhance neuro-cognitive development especially in training context. Moreover, with these tools we could recover traditional and well known psycho-pedagogical practices that are not widely and massively applied because of their expensiveness. For example, it is the case of educational materials like Logic Blocks or Teaching Tiles. These are manipulative learning environments designed to teach a wide range of subjects (mathematics, geometry, languages, geography, etc.) and abilities (or soft skills) (problem solving, creative thinking, cooperative behaviour, etc.) for children aged from 3 and 10. Unfortunately, this type of material can be used individually or in small groups of students (3-4 children maximum) and requires a constant supervision by an adult (teachers, parents, educators, etc.). This is a strong constrain for their massive utilization. As said above, we think that the emerging field of smart technologies (software and hardware) could be addressed to overcome this constrain and exploit the huge potential lying in these materials/practice. This book aims to introduce the general theme of developing and using innovative teaching/learning environments based on the harmonic integration of (a) Referring to a well-known cognitive theoretical perspective;  (b) recovering traditional psycho-pedagogical practices, etc. (i.e. logical blocks, teaching tiles, handwriting); (c) applying Smart Technologies to enhance the psycho-pedagogical practices (i.e. hardware side: RFID/NFC sensors, augmented reality systems, intelligent interfaces, etc.; software side: artificial intelligence systems to enhance the learning-teaching experiences). The book is divided-up in two parts. The first part delineates the state the art of the overall field (theoretical perspectives, hand-on educational practices, smart technologies applied to education), the second part will  describe the Block-Magic  methodology-technology as a concrete and recent case of study. More in detail the first part reports the state of the art about theoretical perspective on learning and cognitive development that inspire hands-on educational practices. Moreover we will describe some relevant examples of hands-on educational practices, underlying their specific features, strengths and drawbacks and how they are related with the theories and methods describes in the first section. Finally, we will go a step further introducing tangible devices and smart technologies that allow people to interact with digital information through the physical environment (i.e. tangible user interface). Also in this case attention will be devoted to analyse these examples according to the proposed theoretical framework. The part II will widely describe a case study, the Block-Magic methodology . What is Block Magic? Why is it different from others platforms? What does it allow to do in training /educational context? Why is it effective? These questions will receive a reply through the description of concrete examples and applications by the Block- Magic Consortium, in the framework of EU funded research project. Many book authors are members of the Block-Magic consortium (www.block-magic.eu) that has developed learning/teaching materials and activities according to the above guidelines.

Adolescenti alle prese con il diabete: gestire ed accettare la propria malattia cronica

Nei sistemi sanitari occidentali si osservano processi di complessivo ridisegno volti a decentralizzare cura e assistenza riservando agli ospedali la gestione di casi acuti e prestazioni specialistiche. In questo contesto si inseriscono forme di autonomizzazione dei pazienti cronici e di delega alle reti familiare/personale del supporto necessario. Tali cambiamenti hanno portato a forme di educazione all’autogestione che prevedono la formazione dei pazienti alla malattia, al riconoscimento di sintomi e condizioni di rischio, all’utilizzo di presìdi e farmaci, all’automisurazione di parametri e l’autodosaggio dei medicinali, solo per citare alcuni aspetti.

Accanto alle dimensioni tecniche e cognitive dell’apprendimento, tuttavia, la gestione quotidiana di una patologia cronica chiama in causa dimensioni relazionali ed emozionali che pur concorrendo in modo rilevante alla qualità della vita sono spesso ritenute dagli operatori sanitari di esclusiva pertinenza del singolo paziente. A questa lacuna cercano di sopperire attività di gruppo tra i pazienti, come i campi scuola descritti del lavoro qui riportato e presentato al X Convegno Annuale AISC 2013.

Gli autori della ricerca propongono una riflessione sulla relazione tra le dimensioni cognitiva ed emozionale nell’apprendimento della gestione della malattia cronica. Il caso di studio riguarda ragazzi con diabete di tipo 1, condizione che richiede una gestione cognitivamente onerosa e, soprattutto nell’età adolescenziale, emotivamente complessa.

Per consultare l’intero articolo   http://www.aisc-net.org/home/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/ATTI-AISC2013.pdf

Fonte

Piras E.M., Miele F. (2013) Oltre calcolo e cognizione nella gestione delle malattie croniche. Apprendimento esperienziale ed emozionale in un campo scuola per adolescenti diabetici.. Atti del X Convegno Annuale AISC 2013, 195-199.

Ricordi per poter immaginare il futuro

Raccontare una vacanza… Nell’ambito degli studi sulla memoria, tale azione è possibile grazie alla memoria episodica: il ricordo di eventi passati, legati a precise coordinate spazio-temporali. Sebbene la maggior parte della ricerca negli anni passati si è concentrata sul ruolo della memoria episodica nel ricordare, alcuni autori hanno suggerito che la memoria episodica fornisce la base per un ”viaggio mentale” non solo nel passato, ma anche nel futuro . Questi studi hanno dimostrato che ricordare eventi passati e immaginare eventi futuri dipende in gran parte gli stessi meccanismi cognitivi: rappresentazioni mentali di eventi futuri sono, infatti, costruite sulla base di vari elementi che vengono estratti dalle esperienze passate. A supporto di tale ipotesi, studi di brain imaging hanno dimostrato elevati gradi di sovrapposizione dell’attività neurale nella corteccia prefrontale e nel lobo temporale mediale, come pure nelle regioni posteriori, in entrambe le condizioni. La memoria episodica fornisce quindi gli ingredienti necessari per la costruzione di rappresentazioni mentali del futuro . Come spiegare questo fenomeno? Secondo Schacter e Addis (ipotesi della simulazione episodico-costruttiva) dettagli di eventi passati, cioè le esperienze precedenti memorizzate nella memoria episodica , sarebbero ricombinate in maniera flessibile per creare scenari futuri.

Lo studio di seguito proposto esamina le differenze tra diverse fasce di età di adulti (young, young-old, old-old) nella creazione di immagini mentali dal passato e dal futuro. Ai soggetti venivano presentate delle parole chiave e per ognuna di esse veniva richiesto di ricordare un evento passato o immaginare un evento futuro. La performance è stata analizzata nei termini del tipo di immagine creata (specifica o generale) e della sua vividezza. I risultati hanno mostrato che i soggetti più anziani immaginano eventi futuri meno specifici rispetto alle altre fasce di età , inoltre producono più immagini generali del futuro rispetto al passato. Un pattern simile è emerso anche per la vividezza delle immagini prodotte. Gli effetti del declino cognitivo legato all’età (in termini di carenza nella vividezza e specificità dei ricordi passati, e decremento delle funzioni esecutive), sembrano dunque estendersi anche alla capacità di immaginare scenari futuri.

Per consultare l’intero articolo in inglese http://wmlabs.psy.unipd.it/Publication/borella/Beni%20et%20al._2013_Remembering%20the%20past%20and%20imagining%20the%20future%20age-related%20differences%20between%20young,%20young-old%20and%20old-old.pdf

Fonte

De Beni R., Borella E., Carretti B., Zavagnin M., Lazzarini L., Milojev G. (2013). Remembering the past and imagining the future: age-related differences between young, young-old and old-old. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 89-97.